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::: Kauai Postmarks, Part 1 - Anahola to Koloa :::

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85 - Mar 27 from Hanalei

Hanalei postmark type 282.013 dated March 27, 1885, struck on a cover addressed to San Francisco. Postage was paid with a 5’ Hawaii ultramarine stamp, Scott number 39, canceled with a Hanalei circle of Vs, cross17(V ring).


Anahola, Kawaihau District
"fish poison cave"
Post office: 1856-1869

Postmasters: Chas. Griffiths (1857-1864), Christian Bertelmann (1864-1869) and Ernest Krull (1869).

A small village and landing at the northern end of Kawaihau District. The area was a sheep and cattle ranch owned by Bertelmann.

No postmarks known.

Eleele, Koloa District
"black"
Post office: 1899-1900

Postmaster: E. E. Conant (1899-1900)

Former name for the landing known as Port Allen since 1909, serving the Eleele Plantation and mill, started in 1884, and the neighboring town of Hanapepe. In 1899, this place became the site of the McBryde Sugar Company formed out of Eleele Plantation and other lands.

Conant is listed in the directories as a manager and bookkeeper at Waimea Sugar Mill in 1898 but apparently moved to McBryde by 1899. The post office was at the McBryde plantation office.

Photo 1885 Sugar Plantation Eleele Kauai

Sugar Plantation, Eleele Kauai, c. 1885

804
Eleele Wharf
manuscript

Noted on a Scott No. 81 cover.

no image available

253.01
27mm double lined circle
Color: Purple
Scarcity: 4
Usage: October 13, 1899 – June 13, 1900; a UX8 datelined at Eleele on September 26, 1900 bears a modification of this mark with a straightline date “SEP 27 1899” oriented across the center; the year date in the dateline is thought to be correct so the modified mark is judged a territorial use on September 27, 1900.

Eleele 253_01 99 - Oct 13 EDU

October 13, 1899

Eleele 253_01 (II) 00 - Sep 27

September 27, 1900

Hanalei, Hanalei District
"crescent bay" [Pukui]; "make a wreath" [Davey]
Customs office 1846-1856; post office 1856-1900

Postmasters: Capt. John Kellett (1846-1856), Rev. Abner Wilcox (1856-1863), Capt. A. White (1865-1866), Judge H. J. Wana (acting PM from September, 1867 to 1870), Wm. Kellett (1870-?, with Rev. Wilcox), Capt. John Ross (1870?-1876), A Conradt (1876-1878), C. Koelling (1878-1883), Jas. M. Gibson (1883-1885), J. C. Long (1885-1889), C. Koelling (1889-1892), J. M. Radway (1892-1893), A. B. Scrimgeour (1893) and C. H. Willis (1894-1900).

A mission station was established at nearby Waioli in 1834. Hanalei was the first port of entry named for the island in 1846. For the mostly Hawaiian population of northern Kauai, Hanalei was the social center. Hanalei Plantation was organized before 1850. Princeville Plantation was started nearby along the Hanalei River around 1855 by Robert Crichton Wyllie, Hawaii's foreign minister. The name Princeville was given to the plantation in 1860. Coffee was a major crop in the early days of Hanalei Plantation and Princeville but the trees became infected and were uprooted in 1862, when the land was planted in sugar. By 1863, Princeville was a sugar estate. In 1875, it boasted extensive cane lands and a sugar mill owned by Capt. Ross. The region of Hanalei was important for rice and taro production. The population of the Hanalei District was 1,998 in 1853, grew to 2,186 by 1866, fell off to 1,558 in 1872 and gradually grew back to 2,630 by 1900.

Capt. Kellett was the customs collector and port pilot. Rev. Wilcox took over postal duties about 1856 and probably operated the post office at his nearby Waioli residence. From at least 1885, when Long became postmaster (and probably from at least 1878 when Koelling first became postmaster), the Hanalei post office was operated at Princeville Plantation. Koelling and Willis were managers of Princeville Plantation. Long, Radway and Scrimgeour were bookkeepers there. Radway was Koelling's deputy to perform postal duties from 1889 until Radway was appointed postmaster. Gibson is listed in Bowser’s 1881 directory as an agent for taking acknowledgments to labor contracts but he may have worked at Princeville while he was postmaster.

Mail service was by overland mail from Lihue and by schooner direct from Honolulu during the 1870s. Steamer service, until then too irregular, supplemented the overland service from about 1880 with a weekly mail from Honolulu. The Hanalei office engaged carriers for Lumahai, Wainiha, Haena and Kalalau. The carrier from Kalalau wrapped mail in banana leaves to keep it from getting soaked.

Stamps were supplied to Hanalei regularly starting with the 2’ Numerals in July, 1859. Stamp sales in 1898 were $156.50.

Princeville plantaion, Hanalei, Kauai, by M. Dickson

Princeville Plantation along the Hanalei River, Hanalei Bay in the distance, image by Dickson c. 1880

238.02
30mm single lined circle; brass stamp
Color: Black, Purple, Blue
Rarity: 1R, 22 strikes recorded
Usage: December __, 1879 – January __, 1888

Purple is noted in July, 1886; blue strikes must still be confirmed. This mark was formerly rated a 2.

Hanalei 238_02 5 81 - Sep 10

September 10, 1881

Hanalei 238_02 7 82 - May 3

May 3, 1882

Hanalei 238_02 17 86 - Apr 9 detail

April 9, 1886

282.013
33mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Black, Blue, Purple
Scarcity: 1R, 20 strikes recorded
Usage: November 2, 1882 – September __, 1887

Blue is noted March, 1885-June, 1885; black strikes must still be confirmed.

Hanalei 282_013 85 - Mar 27

March 27, 1885

255.12
29mm double lined circle
Color: Purple, Black, Red
Scarcity: 4
Usage: November 18, 1887 – December __, 1892

When the device for this mark was received, it had no date type so the postmaster used the date type from the 282.013 device and from a private set. In October, 1888, the postmaster reported the date type was "greatly damaged and some completely destroyed" (referring to the date type taken from style 282.013 for use in this device).

Black is noted in March 1892, but it could be a very dark purple; an undated light reddish-purple strike is noted.

Hanalei 255_12 88 - Mar 18

March 18, 1888

Hanalei 255_12 89 - Jan 18

January 18, 1889

Hanalei 255_12 90 - Nov 21

November 21, 1890

Hanalei 255_12 on 44, possible red adj

Undated red

Hanalei 255_12 black Mar 11 1892 on Scott 43 V-P

March 11, 1892, black

Hanalei 255_12 92 - Oct 14

October 14, 1892, purple

281.01
31mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Purple, Black
Scarcity: 4
Usage: March __, 1891 – December 27, 1899

Black is noted December 3, 1897 and December 27, 1899.

Hanalei 281_01 97 - Dec 3

December 3, 1897

Hanalei 281_01 99 - Dec 27

December 27, 1899

282.011
33mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Purple, Blue
Estimated: 6
Usage: March 1, 1889 – February 5, 1897

Purple is noted to October 6, 1893. Blue is noted December 15, 1893 and from April, 1895 onward. Some blue strikes are bluish black.

Hanalei 282_011 93 - Dec 15

December 15, 1893

Hanalei 282_011 96 - Sep 11

September 11, 1896

253.01
27mm double lined circle
Color: Purple, Blue, Black
Estimated: 5
Usage: June __, 1897 – June 8, 1900

Black strikes are a dark purplish black noted in January, 1898; blue strikes are a dark blackish blue noted from February, 1899 to September, 1899; later strikes are purple.

Hanalei 253_01 99 - Apr 5

April 5, 1899

Hanapepe, Waimea District
"crushed bay, as by landslides" [Pukui]; "to crush" [Davey]
Post office: 1858-1866; 1893-1900

Postmasters: Rev. J. B. Kahaleole (1893-1894), C. D. Pringle (1894-1896) and H. H. Brodie (1897-1900).

The village at Hanapepe was unremarkable in early accounts of 1867, 1875 and 1880, but mention is made of the lands cultivated along the river. An 1888 traveler mentions rice and taro planted along the river and a small population. Between 1888 and 1892, the Hawaiian Sugar Co. office was located here and the post office was operated from the plantation office. Once the plantation office moved to Makaweli, only four families of Hawaiians and three of Chinese were reported living at Hanapepe town but the population of the valley was put at about 600. In 1895 it was reported about 1000 Japanese farmers lived in the area.

It is uncertain whether a post office as such was located at Hanapepe in the years 1858-1866. There was no significant foreign population which generally was necessary to support sufficient business for a post office. From 1890 to 1892, the Makaweli post office was located at Hanapepe but the Hawaiian Sugar Co. moved its headquarters three miles north west to Makaweli and took the post office with it. Agitation for a Hanapepe post office began in 1892 after the Makaweli post office moved to Makaweli. Rev. Kahaleole was appointed postal agent for Hanapepe in July, 1893 and Pringle was appointed postmaster in November, 1894. Rev. Kahaleole was the pastor of the native church at Hanapepe. Pringle was principal of the Government School at Hanapepe. Brodie was the principal at the English School in Eleele. Hanapepe post office was located at the Kwong Hing store about a quarter mile from Eleele Wharf and served the Hanapepe Valley.

Establishment of the Eleele post office in 1899 rendered Hanapepe marginal. Stamp sales in 1898 were $32.75.

Hanapepe Valley

Hanapepe Valley, c. 1900

281.013
30mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Purple, Red, Blue
Estimated: 5
Usage: December 8, 1894 – March __, 1900

Blue is noted October 3, 1896 and December, 1895, purplish-red noted December 1898.

Hanapepe 281_013 98 - Dec 10

December 10, 1898

Hanapepe 281_013 98 - Dec 3 detail

December 3, 1898

Hanapepe 281_013 99 - Jan 17

January __, 1899

253.01
27mm double lined circle
Color: Purple
Scarcity: 1R
Usage: __, 1898 – May __, 1900

I record just seven strikes of this postmark (none on cover), so I have changed it from “2” to “1R,” but it might be rarer still.

Hanapepe 253_01 99 - Jan 6

January 6, 1899

Hanapepe 253_01 99 - Jan 26

January 26, 1900

Kaiwa, Hanalei/Lihue Districts
Overland mail route across the mountains between Hanalei and Lihue. Kaiwa Stream is on the eastern watershed of the Hanalei River and crosses the trail near the summit of the pass between Hanalei and Lihue. The manuscript mark apparently was applied by the mail carrier.

801
Kaiwa o napali
manuscript
Rarity: 1RRRR, one strike recorded c. 1870s

Kaiwa O napali

Kapaa, Kawaihau District
"the solid, or the closing" [Pukui]; "fast, firm" [Davey]
Post office: 1880-1893

Postmasters: G. H. Dole (1880-1882), Jas. H. K. Kaiwi (1882-1883), G. B. Grant (1883-1884), George C. Potter (1884-1885), G. H. Dole (1885-1886), John T. Herapath (1886) and R. C. Spaulding (1886-1893).

Site of Makee Plantation, started in 1877 on former grazing land. By 1880 the small town had a general store, a boarding and lodging house and a few coffee saloons "besides the post office." Population of the Kawaihau District was first separated for the 1884 census. At that time, the district had 1,882 people. Immigration impacted this district heavily so by 1900, it had a diverse population of 3,220 consisting of Hawaiians, Americans, Japanese, Chinese, South Pacific Islanders, Portuguese, Norwegians and others.

Dole was manager at Makee Plantation. Kaiwi was the district judge. Except for Judge Kaiwi’s tenure as postmaster, the office was operated at Makee Plantation. The office here was closed and replaced by the office at Kealia in 1893 when Makee Sugar Co. consolidated its offices at Kealia. Thereafter, mail service for the community was by plantation train from Kealia.

Kapaa early 20th century

Kapaa Town, 1924 aerial photo

282.013
33mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Purple, Blue, Black
Estimated: 7
Usage: May 26, 1882 – August 13, 1891

Date type for the year 1891 was the last furnished but use continued in 1892.
The last digit of the year date often is missing in early strikes. Blue strikes are early; blackish blue is noted on Scott 38.

Kapaa 282_013 84 - Oct 7

October 7, 1884

Kapaa 282_013 85 - Apr 4

April 4, 1885

Kealia, Kawaihau District
"the salt encrustation" [Pukui]; "salt pan" [Davey]
Post office: 1893-1900

Postmaster: R. C. Spaulding (1893-1900).

The area was ranch land owned by E. Krull. His dairy was described by travelers in the 1860s and 1870s. Rice plantations were noted in the lower elevation. Kealia was the site of the Kealia Plantation in the 1880s and 1890s. Makee Sugar Co. was organized at Kealia in 1877 and later acquired by Col. Z. S. Spaulding. The main mill was located at Kealia.

The office here replaced the office at Kapaa and it was operated at Makee Sugar Co. In fact, the change from Kapaa to Kealia happened in 1892, before the post office name changed. A plantation railroad ferried mail from here to the residents of Kapaa after the post office moved from Kapaa to Kealia.

Stamp sales in 1898 were $722, second largest on Kauai after Lihue.

Kealia Mill and Village c. 1909

Kealia Mill and Village c. 1909

282.011
32mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Purple
Estimated: 9
Usage: May __, 1893 – September 13, 1900

Kealia 282_011 98 - Mar 5

March 5, 1898

Kekaha, Waimea District
"the place" [Pukui]; "lands unsuited for taro growth" [Davey]
Post office: 1882-1900

Postmasters: W. Meier (1882-1888), C. Borchgrevink (1888-1893) and Adam Lindsay (1893-1895), C. W. Lindsay (1893-1895), F. W. Glade (1895-1899) and H. P. Faye (1899-1900).

Site of the Kekaha Sugar Plantation, planted in sugar and other crops in 1856. Kekaha village had two stores in 1888. The sugar estates in the vicinity were the Meyer & Kruse lands around Kekaha proper, the Mana lands managed by H. P. Faye and Kekaha Mill Co. They were consolidated as Kekaha Sugar Company in 1898.

Borchgrevink and the two Lindsays kept the Kekaha Store where the post office was located. Glade and Faye were managers at Kekaha Mill and Kekaha Sugar Plantation; the post office was operated at the mill and plantation during their tenures. A plantation railroad ran between Waimea and Kekaha starting about 1884 and hauled mail to Kekaha.

Stamp sales in 1898 were $349.50.

282.016
32mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Black, Purple, Blue
Scarcity: 2
Usage: March __, 1884 – August __, 1891

Blue is noted December 3, 1887; black needs to be confirmed. Purple strikes are early to March, 1886.

Kekaha 282_016 86 - Mar 27

March 27, 1886, purple

Kekaha 282_016 89 - Feb 23

February 23, 1889, blue
Courtesy of Robert A. Siegel Auction Galleries

282.011
33mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle; space between "K" and "E" is especially wide
Color: Black, Purple
Estimated: 7
Usage: August 22, 1890 – June 19, 1897

Purplish black is noted in May, 1895.

Kekaha 282_011 90 - Dec 31

December 31, 1890

253.04
27mm double lined circle
Color: Purple, Black
Estimated: 7
Usage: July __, 1897 – June __, 1900

Formerly listed as type 235.04 (thus describing a single lined outer circle) but clear double lined strikes are known.

Colors noted are black, purplish black, purple and bluish black, with no definite pattern, except true black seems to be the earliest.

Kekaha 253_04 97 - Nov 19

November 19, 1897, black;
double lined circle

Kekaha 253_04 98 - Dec 9

December 9, 1898, purple

Kekaha 253_04 98 - Apr 15 dble lined

April 15, 1898, double lined circle

Kilauea, Hanalei District
"spewing, much spreading (lava)" [Pukui]; "rising smoke cloud" [Davey]
Post office: 1877-1900

Postmasters: J. Ross (1877-1878), E. P. Adams (1878-1880), R. A. Macfie, Jr. (1880-1883), W. F. Lowrie (1883-1884), W. Cuthbert (1884-1885), R. A. Macfie, Jr. (1885-1890), G. R. Ewart (1890-1894), Mrs. B. R. (Agnes) Foss (1894-1895) and John Bush (1895-1900).

Charles Titcomb started planting crops on Kauai at an early time and his extensive farm at Kilauea was noted by travelers in the 1860s and 1870s. He started planting sugar at Kilauea by 1863. At one point, he even attempted producing silk and planted mulberries for the silkworms. The Kilauea Sugar Co. was operating by 1877 and was incorporated as Kilauea Sugar Plantation in 1880. By 1880, Kilauea boasted the Kong Lung general store, a coffee saloon and a boarding house. A plantation railroad was built in 1881. In 1888, Kilauea had a "good country hotel" aptly named the "Polyglot" for the diverse population supporting the plantations and a "well stocked" general store. The famous lighthouse near the town was constructed in 1913.

At least from the time Adams was postmaster until Mrs. Foss became postmistress the post office probably was operated at the plantation office. Adams was president and manager of Kilauea Plantation. Macfie and Ewart were managers at the plantation. Lowrie and Cuthbert were plantation men. Mrs. Foss was the principal at the local English School and Bush was a teacher there.

Stamp sales in 1898 were $479.60.

Kilauea Kong Lung

Kong Lung General Store, early image

217
oval, 41mm x 26mm
KILAUEA Sugar Co./
one line date/
Kauai, H, I.

Color: purple
Rarity: 1RRRR, one strike is recorded on a UX3 sent to Wales and one recorded erroneously as Kilauea Plantation from a partial off-cover 2’ brown Kalakaua stamp, see Burt, Western Express, December 1999, p. 40
Usage: 1882

82 - May 4 Kilauea Sugar Co

May 4, 1882

282.016
32mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Purple
Scarcity: 4
Usage: August __, 1882 – January 20, 1887

Kilauea 282_016 84 - Nov. 29

November 29, 1884

281.01
30mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle; the date size and font type are inconsistent
Color: Purple, Red, Magenta
Estimated: 7
Usage: March 1, 1887 – February 11, 1896

In November, 1895, the postmaster alerted the Honolulu Post office that his stamp had no type for the year 1896 and he requested a new one. Strikes from early January, 1896, lack a year date.

Purple is early; by 1893, the color mix became a reddish purple, ranging to magenta, noted June to July, 1893 and red, noted May 4, 1894; the color mix became darker in mid-to-late 1894, ranging to blackish purple by December 4, 1894.

Kilauea 281_01 87 - Nov 11

November 11, 1887

Kilauea 281_01 93 - Jul 21

July 21, 1893, magenta

Kilauea 281_01 94 - May 4

May 4, 1894, red

Kilauea 281_01 95 - Sep 12

September 12, 1895, blackish-purple

Kilauea 281_01 96 - Jan 7 year missing

January 7, 1896, year date is missing.

282.011
33mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Purple
Estimated: 7
Usage: February 11, 1896 – June __, 1900

Kilauea 282_011 97 - Sep 1

September 1, 1897

Koloa, Koloa District
"wild duck" [Pukui and Davey]; "long sugar cane" [Judd]
Customs office 1855-1856; post office 1856-1900

Postmasters: Dr. J. W. Smith (1857-1859), R. S. Hollister (1859-1863), P. H. Pierson (1863), E. Hoffman (1863), Ch. F. Newman (1865-1868), Wm. O. Smith (1869), G. S. Pinkham (1869), Frank Bindt (1874-1879), J. D. Neal (1879) and E. Strehz (1879-1900).

A Protestant mission station was established at Koloa in 1834 and Koloa Plantation, the first commercial sugar plantation in the islands, was begun in 1835. Koloa Catholic Mission was established in 1841 (it generated its own distinctive handstamps in the 1890s, see Private Sender Marks - Charitable and Other Organizations). Anchorage at Koloa was unsafe and ships usually lay on and off while loading from boats. The town of Koloa is situated about two miles inland from the boat landing. A carriage road connected Koloa with Lihue and Nawiliwili Harbor. Koloa was the agricultural center of Kauai for decades. An 1863 account described Koloa as having numerous houses scattered at great distances from one another. Hollister's tapioca farm is mentioned in addition to the sugar estate. In 1880, Koloa was a "flourishing town" with two general stores and two Chinese stores, a boarding house, numerous coffee saloons, a blacksmith, a tin smith, two doctors, two churches, three schools and a telephone connection to Lihue. In 1888, Koloa was described as "thriving" with five stores and a lumber yard. Population in Koloa District stood at 1,296 in 1853 and hit a low of 833 people in 1872. It grew sharply to 1,500 in 1884 and gradually increased to 1,835 in 1896, but ballooned to 4,564 in 1900.

Dr. Smith, pastor of Koloa Church, was the only physician on Kauai for many years. Hollister was a local farmer. Newman was a cooper (maybe the tin-smith mentioned in the travelogue) and renowned as a musician. Smith was a young lawyer who later moved to Honolulu and eventually took part in the 1893 overthrow of the monarchy. Strehz was the customs collector and managed A. Dreier’s Koloa sugar lands (Dreier was manager at Eleele Plantation).

Stamp sales in 1898 were $624.50.

Koloa Landing

Koloa Landing, c. 1880

800
manuscript
Rarity: 1RRRR; one strike is noted on a Westerberg Plate 3-C-IX Numeral
Usage: late 1859-early 1860

Koloa 800 ms

Plate 3-C-IX

238.02
30mm single lined circle; brass stamp
Color: Black
Scarcity: 2
Usage: August 25, 1882 - January __, 1886

Koloa 238_02 82 - Aug 25

August 25, 1882
Courtesy of Gary Peters

Koloa 238_02 83 - Mar 30

March 30, 1883

Koloa 238_02 85 - Jun __ - LKU detail

Jun __, 1885

282.012
33mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Purple, Black, Blue
Estimated: 8
Usage: October 12, 1883 – June __, 1900; with a "gap" in use from November, 1889, to September, 1898 during which there was only occasional use.

Blue is noted to April 16, 1887; black in late 1898 and early 1899; black-blue from mid-1899 to June, 1900.

Koloa 282_012 83_ Oct 12

October 12, 1883

Koloa 282_012 88 - Jan 21

January 21, 1888

251.02
25mm double lined circle; town lettering spread out due to wear and letters appear larger in later strikes
Color: Purple, Blue, Black
Estimated: 8
Usage: May 19, 1888 – August __, 1898

Blue noted in 1888; black strikes noted 1889 to early 1892; then an assortment of blackish purple, purple, blackish blue and blue strikes t0 1898.

The year date often is unclear; September, 1896 strikes are noted very highly placed within the mark and mis-oriented.

Koloa 251_02 88 - May 19, ex-Davey

May 19, 1888
blue

Koloa 251_02 91 - Oct 10

October 10, 1891
black

Koloa 251_02 92 - May 7

May 7, 1892

Koloa 251_02 96 - Sep 26

September 26, 1896

282.011
32mm double lined outer and single lined inner circle
Color: Black, Blue
Estimated: 7
Usage: March 2, 1894 – March 5, 1898
Blue strikes are early to October, 1894.

Koloa 282_011 97 - May 15

May 15, 1897

253.9a1
27mm double lined circle; duplex cancel
Color: Purple
Rarity: 1RRR; seven strikes reported, one on cover or large piece
Usage: March 25, 1898 – April 26, 1899

Koloa 255_01 98 - Jul 20

July 20, 1898

Koloa 255_01 99 - Mar 26

March 26, 1899

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