This page last updated: 31 March 2002


::: AUXILIARY MARKS - Foreign Auxiliary Marks :::

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Mortlock GPO Melbourne 9May94 cover

This cover mailed from the British Colony of Victoria, Australia, on May 9, 1894, bears a handstamp of the H. J. Mortlock & Co., Melbourne, Australia. The firm dealt in postage stamps for collectors. The cover is addressed to Walter M. Giffard, a well known stamp collector in the 1890's, son-in-law of PMG Brickwood and author of a definitive treatise on Hawaiian stamps.

Foreign Auxiliary marks cover the same categories created for the study of Hawaiian auxiliary marks: transportation marks, forwarder marks, express marks, official marks and private sender marks. The common definition of this group is the mark was placed on the mail outside Hawaii. Most of these marks are easier to find on incoming rather than outgoing mail.

TRANSPORTATION MARKS

Foreign auxiliary transportation marks are few, so far as my research goes. Added to the two examples shown here, one might also include the San Francisco packet marks shown at Ship Marks because they probably were applied at San Francisco.

AUXFORGNTR-Isthmus
straightline
unserifed letters
orange

Per Stmr Isthmus

May 15, 1850
Advertiser Sale, lot 2094
Courtesy of Siegel Auction Galleries

PER STR ISTHMUS
Usage: 1850
The steamer Isthmus belonged to George Law's Pacific Line at this time. Until October, 1850, the San Francisco post office could dispatch mail for New York by steamers belonging to any of the several lines operating between San Francisco and Panama. This marking is believed to have been used by the George Law Line rather than being applied at the post office and, thus, is an auxiliary mark.

AUXFORGNTR-Nicaragua
52mm x 30mm double lined oval
unserifed letters

Via NIcaragua Pietsch

November 24, 1854
Pietsch Sale, lot 1660
Courtesy of Shreves Philatelic Galleries

VIA NICARAGUA/
IN ADVANCE OF THE MAILS

Usage:
This mark was used by the Opposition Line of steamers operating in competition with the Pacific Mail. Instead of using the Panama Isthmus Route, this line used a Nicaragua crossing. It is not a rare mark on mail originating in California, but only one example is recorded on mail from Hawaii.
The cover bearing this mark arrived in San Francisco on November 17 and left for New York via Nicaragua on the Opposition Line steamer Uncle Sam on November 24.


FORWARDER MARKS

San Francisco

Use of forwarders to handle mail from Hawaii was popular until the mid-50's. On mail bound for Hawaii, forwarders were often used until regular contract steam service was established in September, 1867. Until then, mail addressed directly to Honolulu was held at the San Francisco post office until it was picked up by a mail agent appointed by the Hawaiian Postal Service. Hawaii selected a San Francisco merchant to act as its mail agent. The agent, with more or less diligence, would retrieve mail for Hawaii from the San Francisco post office after the arrival of the mail steamer via Panama or the overland coach once that service began. Mail for Hawaii was then placed aboard a vessel selected by the mail agent. To avoid this sometimes uncertain process, a correspondent seeking a more reliable connection would direct Hawaii bound mail to the care of a merchant firm in San Francisco. That firm would place the letter in its own letter bag and select the vessel to carry it. Often the merchant selected by the sender was the same merchant selected by Hawaii as its mail agent. Whether a fee was paid for this service is uncertain. Some San Francisco firms encouraged the practice as a way to raise their visibility in Hawaiian commercial circles so probably any forwarding was done gratis. When the contract steamers began to run, use of forwarders declined but did not disappear until sometime in the latter part of the 1880's. At least I have no examples after 1885. For illustrations of Hawaii forwarder marks, see Hawaii Forwarder Agent Marks.

Dating inbound covers with foreign forwarding marks depends on luck. Sometimes a receipt date was scribbled on the cover. Sometimes a foreign country postmark showed a date. Most of the time, the covers have no postal markings of any kind, no manuscript notations and no basis other than a good guess for arriving at a date. Vessel names sometimes were placed on covers and provide a tool to narrow the cover to particular sailings. For a list of vessel names and handstamps, see Auxiliary Marks - Ship Marks.

AUXFORGNFWD-Aldrich
46mm x 25mm single lined oval
serifed letters except town
black

Inbound Aldrich, Merrill oval 1866

1866

FORWARDED BY/
SAN FRANCISCO/
ALDRICH, MERRILL & CO

Usage: 1866
Mark noted as a backstamp on an inbound cover sent postage paid through the mail from Holmes Hole, Mass. on August 6, 1866.

Aldrich eventually came to Honolulu to help found the banking firm Bishop & Co. J. C. Merrill remained a San Francisco merchant for years. Aldrich, Merrill & Co. was the San Francisco mail agent designated by Hawaii from 1865 to 1868.

AUXFORGNFWD-Brooks
38mm x 26mm double lined oval
serifed letters except firm name
black, bluish-green

ChasBrooks 61

c. 1862

FORWARDED/
BY/
CHASW.BROOKS & CO/
SAN FRANCISCO

Usage: 1862-1866
Mark noted on face of two stampless inbound covers from San Francisco and handled outside the mail.

Brooks attempted to ingratiate himself with the Honolulu merchants by taking Hawaii bound mail from the San Francisco post office ahead of the appointed Hawaiian mail agent and sending it to Honolulu. PMG Brickwood put a stop to Brooks's efforts. Brooks loaned heavily on sugar in Hawaii following the Civil War, supporting the Walker, Allen & Co. firm in Honolulu. After sugar prices plummeted, the Brooks firmed failed on October 8, 1866.

AUXFORGNFWD-McRuer(no lines)
51mm x 30mm double lined oval
unserifed letters
black

Fwd McRuer & Merrill oval 10Aug61

August 10, 1861
Hall Sale, lot 822, Siegel Auction #830

FORWARDED BY/
MCRUER & MERRILL/
SAN FRANCISCO

Usage: 1861
Noted as a backstamp on two outbound covers sent the same date via Pony Express.

McRuer & Merrill was the San Francisco mail agent designated by Hawaii from 1860 to 1865.

AUXFORGNFWD-McRuer(lines)
51mm x 31mm single lined oval
unserifed letters; fancy lines above and below the firm name
red

Inbound McRuer & Merrill oval

c. May, 1865

FORWARDED BY/
fancy line/
MCRUER & MERRILL/
fancy line/
SAN FRANCISCO
Usage: 1861
Noted on the face of an inbound cover sent from Bangor, Maine on April 11, 1865.

AUXFORGNFWD-Post(oval)
37mm x 25mm single lined oval
unserifed letters
black

G.B. Post oval Sh Champ, lot 4

circa 1852
Champion Sale, lot 4, Shreve Philatelic Galleries, June 6, 1997

FORWARDED BY/
G. B. POST & Co/
SAN FRANCISCO

Usage: 1852
The oval G. B. Post mark is rare. It is noted on one outbound cover to Massachusetts and one inbound cover to Hawaii.

G. B. Post & Co. was the San Francisco mail agent designated by Hawaii from 1850 to 1856. Gabriel Post himself was a prominent figure in San Francisco until his firm failed in 1856.

AUXFORGNFWD-Post(CO)
39mm x 24mm single lined octagon
unserifed letters except firm name; letters "CO" in firm name are superscripted, underscored and followed by a small dash (see detail).
black

Fwd GBPost octagon co

circa 1854

GBPost octagon co detail

detail

FORWARDED BY/
G. B. POST CO -/
SAN FRANCISCO

Usage: 1854
This mark is much scarcer than the usual octagon illustrated below, AUXFORGNFWD-Post(&CO). I have seen only one example so far, noted on a stampless outbound cover to Massachusetts and marked "Per Yankee via San Fr'o."

AUXFORGNFWD-Post(&CO)
39mm x 24mm single lined octagon
unserifed letters except firm name; the letter "O" of "CO" in the firm name is superscripted with a dot beneath it
black

Fwd GBPost octagon 15Dec54

December 15, 1854

FORWARDED BY/
G. B. POST & Co
SAN FRANCISCO

Usage: 1854-1856
This octagon is the G. B. Post mark usually seen. I would give it a Scarcity 2. It is noted on both incoming and outgoing mail, usually stampless. This mark is seen on all of the marks bearing stamped ship names of the mid-1850's. See Ship Marks.

AUXFORGNFWD-Spreckels
59mm x 35mm double lined oval
unserifed letters except "Forwarded by" and "Commission Merchants"
red

Fwd Spreckels 1Apr85

April 1, 1885

Forwarded by/
J. D. SPRECKELS & BROS./
SHIPPING AND/
COMMISSION MERCHANTS/
327 Market St./
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.

Usage: 1885
Mark is noted on the back of an inbound cover.

The Spreckels interests in Hawaii ran deep, starting with the father, Claus Spreckels. His sons were active in shipping, sugar and many other aspects of Hawaiian commerce from their offices in San Francisco.


Other

AUXFORGNFWD-Bush
43mm x 27mm single lined oval
serifed letters
black

Bush & Co Hong Kong

c. 1846
Advertiser Sale, lot 2091
Courtesy of Siegel Auction Galleries

FORWARDED/
by/
Bush & Co/
HONG KONG

Usage: 1846
Hong Kong, China
Noted on mail from Mazatlan, Mexico, to Canton via Honolulu and Hong Kong.

AUXFORGNFWD-Hale
__mm x __mm single lined oval
serifed letters
red

Hale&Co Chang

September 11, 1844
Courtesy of Albert Chang

FORWARDED/
BY/
HALE & CO./
FROM/
NEW BEDFORD

Usage: 1844
New Bedford, Massachusetts
Noted on outbound mail.

AUXFORGNFWD-Larkin
43mm x 29mm double lined oval
serifed letters
black

Larkin mark - 150

c. June, 1846

FORWARDED BY/
CALIFORNIA/
THOMAS O. LARKIN MONTEREY

Usage: 1846
Monterey, Alta California, Mexico
Noted on outgoing mail to California and forwarded by Larkin, the U.S. Consul at Monterey, Alta California.

AUXFORGNFWD-Maitland
52mm x 16mm double lined octagon
serifed letters
red

Maitland Phelps & Co., NY 1849

c. 1850

MAITLAND PHELPS & CO./
NEW YORK

Usage: 1850
New York, NY
Noted on mail handled privately from Honolulu to London via New York.

AUXFORGNFWD-WDPhelps
52mm x 16mm double lined octagon
manuscript
black

WDPhelps

February 30th, 1844 (sic.)

Manuscript
Usage: 1844
Valparaiso, Chile
The date of course is February 29 (1844 was a leap year) or March 1. Noted on mail from New England to California via Honolulu.


EXPRESS MARKS

San Francisco

Two San Francisco express companies used handstamps placed outside Hawaii on mail to or from Hawaii. These two companies are the same two with Honolulu handstamps, Gregory's Express and Wells, Fargo & Co. For illustrations of the marks used in Hawaii, see Hawaii Express Company Marks.

Gregory's Express

Gregory's Express used several handstamps at its San Francisco office, but only one is noted on Hawaiian mail.

AUXFORGNEXP-Gregory's
unbordered three straight lines
serifed letters except town name
black

Exp Gregory's

April 4, 1852

GREGORY'S EXPRESS/
OFFICE,/
SAN FRANCISCO

Usage: 1852
Noted on an inbound letter.


Wells, Fargo & Co.

John F. Leutzinger's "The Handstamps of Wells, Fargo & Co., 1852-1895" is the authoritative work on these marks.

AUXFORGNEXP-WellsFargo(circle)
31mm single lined outer and inner circles
unserifed letters
blue

Exp WF10Aug61

August 10, 1861
Hall Sale, lot 822, Siegel Auction #830

WELLS, FARGO & COS EXPRESS./
date/
S.FRCO
Leutzinger 1-19 and 11-4

Usage: 1861; Leutzinger says it was "used for many years as a cancel."
Noted on two outgoing covers sent on the same date via Pony Express.

AUXFORGNEXP-WellsFargo(pony)
42mm x 29mm single lined oval
serifed letters
blue

Exp Pony Express 10Aug61 150

August 10, 1861
Hall Sale, lot 822, Siegel Auction #830

PONY EXPRESS/
running pony/
date/
SAN FRANCISCO
Leutzinger 15-1

Usage: 1861
Noted on two outgoing covers sent on the same date via Pony Express.

AUXFORGNEXP-WellsFargo(bogus)
__mm x 27mm single lined oval
unserifed letters above, serifed below
blue

Exp WF22Feb84

February 22, 1884
Advertiser Sale, lot 3438
Courtesy of Siegel Auction Galleries

Exp WF8Apr84

April 8, 1884

Exp WF8Apr84 raised O

detail

WELLS, FARGO & CO./
date/
two concave lines/
SAN FRANCISCO
Leutzinger Unlisted

Usage: February 22, 1884 to April 8, 1884
Noted on outgoing mail. This mark, with the slightly superscripted "O" at the end of "San Francisco" is found only on blue-black franks of the Wells, Fargo & Co. Leutzinger has no listing for a mark of this style (two lines below, none above; superscripted "O"). I believe this mark is bogus and this opinion contributed to concerns regarding the genuine character of the Hawaiian blue-black Wells Fargo franks. Expert certificates declare the blue black frank was not applied at the time. Please let me know if you have further information to shed light on this subject.

AUXFORGNEXP-WellsFargo(three lines)
38mm x 28mm double lined oval
unserifed letters above, serifed below
blue, purple

Exp WF1Mar84

March 1, 1884
Advertiser Sale, lot 3439
Courtesy of Siegel Auction Galleries

Exp WF16Mar85

March 16, 1885

WELLS, FARGO & CO./
three convex lines/
date/
three concave lines
SAN FRANCISCO.
Leutzinger 17-12

Usage: March 1, 1884 to February 6, 1887
Noted on incoming and outgoing covers. Some of the images I have are quite weak so it is possible one or more of the strikes I place in this type could be another type.


Other

Only one express company mark applied outside of Hawaii or San Francisco has been noted so far.

AUXFORGNEXP-Harnden
37mm single lined circle
black

Harnden&Co Chang

c. late 1848
Advertiser Sale, lot 2125
Courtesy of Siegel Auction Galleries

HARNDEN & CO/
of Liverpool/
Have Paid Postage/
TO LIVERPOOL........./
TRANSATLANTIC......../
TO BE COLLECTED......../
by/
HARNDEN & CO OF U. S.

Usage: 1848
Noted on mail from Honolulu to Boston via China and Liverpool.


OFFICIAL MARKS

Finding foreign auxiliary official marks placed on Hawaiian mail somewhere other than in Hawaii has proven difficult. Marks placed on mail in Hawaii by foreign consulates located in Hawaii are shown in the page under Official Auxiliary Marks. For this page, we are looking for marks placed outside of Hawaii on letters to or from Hawaii. For official marks placed on mail in Hawaii, see Official Auxiliary Marks.

AUXFORGNOFF-Brittanic
63mm x 5mm straightline
St. Thomas, West Indies
black letterpress

On Her Britannic Majesty's Service

March 15, 1863


PRIVATE SENDER MARKS

Incoming mail shows a good variety of private sender marks from all over the world. Here are some illustrations. I still need a good example of a sender mark from Asia. For private sender marks applied in Hawaii, see Private Sender Marks.

Africa

AUXFORGNPRI-Isaac
unbordered mark in four lines
Constantine, Algeria
purple

Georges Isaac Algeria

c. March, 1900


Australia

AUXFORGNPRI-WAB
28mm x 19mm single lined outer and inner ovals Western Australia
blue

Bank of Western Aust 23Jun99

May 16, 1899

AUXFORGNPRI-Mortlock
48mm x 30mm double outer lined and single inner ovals
Melbourne, Australia
purple

Mortlock GPO Melbourne 9May94

May 9, 1894


Europe

AUXFORGNPRI-Koecher
27mm x 14mm single lined outer and inner ovals
Manchester, England
black

Koecher & Co Manchester

July 5, 1871


North America

AUXFORGNPRI-Brooks
25mm single lined outer and inner circles
San Francisco
red

ChasBrooks 64 circle

July 16, 1864

AUXFORGNPRI-Hawley
22mm single lined outer and inner circles
San Francisco
black

Hawley & Co.

October 20, 1868

AUXFORGNPRI-Dimond
49mm x 25mm single lined outer and inner ovals
San Francisco
black

Williams Dimond

December 24, 1891


Pacific Islands

AUXFORGNPRI-Langhorn
unbordered, two lines
Apia, Samoa
purple

Langhorn, Samoa

March 13, 1883

AUXFORGNPRI-Ponape
unbordered, two lines
Ponape, Micronesia
blue

PonpapeMission

c. May, 1886


South America

AUXFORGNPRI-Schroeder
35mm x 11mm double lined octagon
Buenos Ayres, Argentina
blue

Schroeder Buenos Aires

February 1, 1856

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